The culture supernatant of Leuconostoc mesenteroides TK41401, isolated from Japanese pickles, possessed antimicrobial activity against broad range of a bacterial genera and particularly strong activity against Bacillus coagulans, the major contaminant of pickles. An antimicrobial peptide was purified in three chromatographic steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 6,115.59 Da by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). The primary structure of this peptide was determined by amino acid and DNA sequencing, and these analyses revealed that it was translated as a 63-residue precursor. This precursor showed high similarity to the precursor of lactocyclicin Q, a cyclic bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus sp. strain QU 12. The molecular weight calculated after cyclization, which was presumed to involve the same process as in lactocyclicin Q (between L3 and W63), agreed with that estimated by ESI-TOF MS. This peptide was proved to be a novel cyclic bacteriocin, and it was termed leucocyclicin Q. The antimicrobial spectrum of this bacteriocin clearly differed from that of lactocyclicin Q, even though their primary structures were quite similar. This is the first report of a cyclic bacteriocin produced by a strain of the genus Leuconostoc.