Blood glucose homeostasis between meals depends upon production of glucose within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the liver and kidney by hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) into glucose and phosphate (P(i)). This reaction depends on coupling the G6P transporter (G6PT) with glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α). Only one G6PT, also known as SLC37A4, has been characterized, and it acts as a P(i)-linked G6P antiporter. The other three SLC37 family members, predicted to be sugar-phosphate:P(i) exchangers, have not been characterized functionally. Using reconstituted proteoliposomes, we examine the antiporter activity of the other SLC37 members along with their ability to couple with G6Pase-α. G6PT- and mock-proteoliposomes are used as positive and negative controls, respectively. We show that SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are ER-associated, P(i)-linked antiporters, that can transport G6P. Unlike G6PT, neither is sensitive to chlorogenic acid, a competitive inhibitor of physiological ER G6P transport, and neither couples to G6Pase-α. We conclude that three of the four SLC37 family members are functional sugar-phosphate antiporters. However, only G6PT/SLC37A4 matches the characteristics of the physiological ER G6P transporter, suggesting the other SLC37 proteins have roles independent of blood glucose homeostasis.