Effect of low-concentration chlorine dioxide gas against bacteria and viruses on a glass surface in wet environments

Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011 Dec;53(6):628-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03156.x. Epub 2011 Oct 19.


Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of low-concentration chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas against model microbes in the wet state on a glass surface.

Methods and results: We set up a test room (39 m(3)) and the ClO(2) gas was produced by a ClO(2) gas generator that continuously releases a constant low-concentration ClO(2) gas. Influenza A virus (Flu-A), feline calicivirus (FCV), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were chosen as the model microbes. The low-concentration ClO(2) gas (mean 0.05 ppmv, 0.14 mg m(-3)) inactivated Flu-A and E. coli (>5 log(10) reductions) and FCV and S. aureus (>2 log(10) reductions) in the wet state on glass dishes within 5 h.

Conclusions: The treatment of wet environments in the presence of human activity such as kitchens and bathrooms with the low-concentration ClO(2) gas would be useful for reducing the risk of infection by bacteria and viruses residing on the environmental hard surfaces without adverse effects.

Significance and impact of the study: This study demonstrates that the low-concentration ClO(2) gas (mean 0.05 ppmv) inactivates various kinds of microbes such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, enveloped and nonenveloped viruses in the wet state.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Calicivirus, Feline / drug effects
  • Cats
  • Chlorine Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Disinfectants / pharmacology*
  • Escherichia coli / drug effects
  • Glass*
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / drug effects
  • Oxides / pharmacology*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / metabolism
  • Viruses / drug effects*
  • Water Microbiology*


  • Chlorine Compounds
  • Disinfectants
  • Oxides
  • chlorine dioxide