The comprehensive assessment of local immune status of ovarian cancer by the clustering of multiple immune factors

Clin Immunol. 2011 Dec;141(3):338-47. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2011.08.013. Epub 2011 Sep 2.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the local immune status of human ovarian cancers by the comprehensive analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and immunosuppressive factors, and to elucidate the local immunity in clinical course. The numbers of CD1α+, CD4+, CD8+, CD57+, forkhead box P3+ and programmed cell death-1+ cells were counted, and the intensity of immunosuppressive factors, such as programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and transforming growth factor β1, were evaluated in 70 ovarian cancer specimens stained by immunohistochemistry. Then hierarchical clustering of these parameters showed the four clusters into ovarian cancer cases. Cluster 1, which had significantly better prognosis than the others, was characterized by high infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. In conclusion the comprehensive analysis of local immune status led to subdivide ovarian cancers into groups with better or worse prognoses and may guide precise understanding of the local immunity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology*
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Carcinoma / drug therapy
  • Carcinoma / immunology*
  • Carcinoma / mortality
  • Cyclooxygenase 1 / analysis
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / analysis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / blood
  • Immunologic Factors / immunology*
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology
  • Middle Aged
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality
  • Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Prognosis


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Platinum Compounds
  • Cyclooxygenase 1
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Paclitaxel