Postprandial metabolic responses to mixed versus liquid meal tests in healthy men and men with type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Dec;94(3):449-55. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.09.002. Epub 2011 Sep 28.


Aims: Compare metabolic responses after mixed versus liquid meals of similar caloric/nutritional content in healthy and type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects.

Methods: Ten healthy men and 10 men with T2D received mixed and liquid meals after an overnight fast. Classical (insulinogenic index; insulin/glucose areas under curves, AUC(insulin)/AUC(glucose)) and model-based (beta-cell glucose sensitivity; rate sensitivity; potentiation factor ratio, PFR) beta-cell function estimates were calculated. Between-meal differences in glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride (TG), beta-cell function and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS) and between-meal correlations for beta-cell function and OGIS were evaluated.

Results: Among healthy subjects, beta-cell function and OGIS were similar between meals. C-peptide (p=0.03), insulin (p=0.002), AUC(insulin)/AUC(glucose) (p=0.004) and insulin secretion (p=0.04) were higher after the liquid meal. Among T2D subjects, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, beta-cell function, and OGIS were similar. PFR was higher (p=0.004) and TG increased more slowly (p=0.002) after the liquid meal. OGIS and beta-cell function were correlated during both meals in both groups (r=0.66-0.98), except incremental AUC(insulin)/AUC(glucose), rate sensitivity, and, in healthy subjects, PFR.

Conclusions: Metabolic responses after mixed or liquid meals of similar content were highly correlated in T2D and healthy subjects. In T2D, the liquid meal produced beta-cell function estimates generally similar to the mixed meal.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • C-Peptide / metabolism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / drug effects
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / complications
  • Postprandial Period / physiology*
  • Triglycerides / metabolism


  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Peptide
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Triglycerides