Since their development in the 1990s DNA microarrays have advanced to one of the most important technologies for biomedical research. Miniaturization enables up to 1 million different sequence-specific DNA hybridization tests to be performed on an area of less than 2 cm². Depending on the selection of oligonucleotide sequences, which are assembled on a microarray and on the treatment of samples prior to hybridization, up to genome-wide analyses for genotypes, gene expression, epigenetic changes or promoter activation can be performed. Increasing knowledge about the human genome advances commercial pre-assembly of DNA microarrays with selected oligonucleotide sequences for specialized applications. In clinical rheumatology gene expression analyses in treatment studies are of increasing importance. Similarly, this technique also identified new biomarkers that allow even better assessment of the current disease activity. The varieties of application enable the possibility of systematic research on the immunological response to specific patterns after stimulation. This opens up opportunities to detect and differentiate immunological reaction patterns better.