Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease will it live up to its hype?

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Oct 4;58(15):1547-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.07.008.


Substantial evidence suggests that a large portion of the population have suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which may adversely affect the cardiovascular (CV) system, including increasing levels of parathyroid hormone, activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and increasing insulin resistance, thus leading to hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, metabolic syndrome/diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation, and increased risk of atherosclerosis and CV disease events. We review the evidence that vitamin D deficiency is associated with incident CV disease events, as well as evidence that vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduction in CV diseases. Although the current evidence has created substantial hype, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether routine vitamin D assessment and supplementation will improve CV outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / blood
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / blood
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Renin-Angiotensin System
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*


  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D