Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study

Diabetologia. 2011 Dec;54(12):3022-7. doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2291-5. Epub 2011 Sep 30.


Aims/hypothesis: This study reports the results of the first phase of a national study to determine the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in India.

Methods: A total of 363 primary sampling units (188 urban, 175 rural), in three states (Tamilnadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) of India were sampled using a stratified multistage sampling design to survey individuals aged ≥ 20 years. The prevalence rates of diabetes and prediabetes were assessed by measurement of fasting and 2 h post glucose load capillary blood glucose.

Results: Of the 16,607 individuals selected for the study, 14,277 (86%) participated, of whom 13,055 gave blood samples. The weighted prevalence of diabetes (both known and newly diagnosed) was 10.4% in Tamilnadu, 8.4% in Maharashtra, 5.3% in Jharkhand, and 13.6% in Chandigarh. The prevalences of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) were 8.3%, 12.8%, 8.1% and 14.6% respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, family history of diabetes, urban residence, abdominal obesity, generalised obesity, hypertension and income status were significantly associated with diabetes. Significant risk factors for prediabetes were age, family history of diabetes, abdominal obesity, hypertension and income status.

Conclusions/interpretations: We estimate that, in 2011, Maharashtra will have 6 million individuals with diabetes and 9.2 million with prediabetes, Tamilnadu will have 4.8 million with diabetes and 3.9 million with prediabetes, Jharkhand will have 0.96 million with diabetes and 1.5 million with prediabetes, and Chandigarh will have 0.12 million with diabetes and 0.13 million with prediabetes. Projections for the whole of India would be 62.4 million people with diabetes and 77.2 million people with prediabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Health Surveys / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Abdominal / epidemiology
  • Prediabetic State / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Rural Population / statistics & numerical data*
  • Sex Factors
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose