Mood and menopause: findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) over 10 years

Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011 Sep;38(3):609-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2011.05.011.


Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from depressive symptoms/disorder. Research has focused on physiologic and psychosocial differences between men and women; an important target of study has been periods of reproductive changes. Controversy has existed regarding the extent to which the menopausal transition or postmenopause increases the risk for depressive symptoms/disorders. This paper presents findings from analyses of data from the SWAN study and an ancillary study on mental health. We found that risk for high depressive symptoms and disorder is greater during and possibly after the menopausal transition. Other factors contribute to risk for depression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Affect*
  • Depression / blood
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Depression / etiology
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / blood
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / etiology*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Hormones / blood
  • Humans
  • Perimenopause / blood
  • Perimenopause / physiology
  • Perimenopause / psychology*
  • Risk Factors
  • United States
  • Women's Health


  • Hormones