Resolvins, including D and E series resolvins, are endogenous lipid mediators generated during the resolution phase of acute inflammation from the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Resolvins have potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions in several animal models of inflammation. Recent findings also demonstrate that resolvin E1 and resolvin D1 can each potently dampen inflammatory and postoperative pain. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which resolvins act on their receptors in immune cells and neurons to normalize exaggerated pain via regulation of inflammatory mediators, transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, and spinal cord synaptic transmission. Resolvins may offer novel therapeutic approaches for preventing and treating pain conditions associated with inflammation.
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