TXNIP (also named as VDUP-1 or TBP-2) was originally isolated in HL60 cells treated with Vitamin D3. Subsequently, it has been identified as a major redox regulator and a Tumor Suppressor Gene (TSG) in various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In the present review, we will first provide an overview of TXNIP gene and protein structures, followed by a summary of the studies that have demonstrated its frequent repression in human cancers and relevant clinical significance, as well as functional characterization in animal models. We will then highlight our current knowledge of TXNIP signaling and biological functions. Next, we will discuss the evidence that clearly have demonstrated that the epigenetic silencing of TXNIP in cancer through various molecular mechanisms. The therapeutic use of small molecular inhibitors to reactivate TXNIP expression for cancer treatment will also be discussed in this review.
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