The relationship between breakfast, lunch and dinner eating pattern and hemodialysis sessions, quality of life, depression and appetite in hemodialysis patients

Int Urol Nephrol. 2012 Oct;44(5):1507-14. doi: 10.1007/s11255-011-0061-4. Epub 2011 Oct 1.


Objective: To evaluate the relationship between eating pattern (regular breakfast, lunch and dinner) and dialysis sessions, laboratory and sociodemographic characteristics in hemodialysis (HD) patients.

Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study eating patterns, sociodemographic, laboratory and clinical parameters, depressive symptoms, quality of life, cognitive function and appetite status were assessed.

Results: Eighty-two HD patients on morning session and 60 patients on midday HD session schedules were included. Ten patients had only breakfast, 17 patients had only lunch, 26 patients had only dinner, 5 patients had breakfast and lunch but not dinner, 28 patients had breakfast and dinner but not lunch, 29 patients had lunch and dinner but not breakfast, and 19 patients had neither breakfast, nor lunch, nor dinner. In the whole group, only 8 patients reported that they had regularly eaten breakfast, lunch or dinner in all days of the week. Midday HD session, better appetite, and higher income were independently associated with having breakfast. Morning HD session, better appetite score, and higher income were independently associated with having lunch. Morning session versus midday session, nPNA, presence of hypertension, and the Mental Component Summary Score of SF-36 were independently associated with having dinner.

Conclusion: The majority of HD patients eat one or two meals per day. Having breakfast (or lunch) is associated with midday dialysis session (or morning dialysis session, respectively), better appetite, and satisfactory income. Eating dinner was associated with morning dialysis session, hypertension, higher protein intake and higher SF-36 mental component summary score.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Appetite
  • Breakfast / psychology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / psychology
  • Feeding Behavior / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Logistic Models
  • Lunch / psychology
  • Male
  • Meals / psychology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Protein-Energy Malnutrition / etiology
  • Quality of Life / psychology
  • Renal Dialysis* / adverse effects
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / psychology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Time Factors