X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and adrenal cortex secondary to mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encode the peroxisomal membrane protein. We conducted a genomic and protein expression study of susceptibility gene with its clinical and biochemical analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first preliminary comprehensive study in Indian population that identified novel mutations and SNPs in a relatively large group. We screened 17 Indian indigenous X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy cases and 70 controls for mutations and SNPs in the exonic regions (including flanking regions) of ABCD1 gene by direct sequencing with ABI automated sequencer along with Western blot analysis of its endogenous protein, ALDP, levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Single germ line mutation was identified in each index case in ABCD1 gene. We detected 4 novel mutations (2 missense and 2 deletion/insertion) and 3 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms. We observed a variable protein expression in different patients. These findings were further extended to biochemical and clinical observations as it occurs with great clinical expression variability. This is the first major study in this population that presents a different molecular genetic spectrum as compared to Caucasian population due to geographical distributions of ethnicity of patients. It enhances our knowledge of the causative mutations of X-ALD that grants holistic base to develop effective medicine against X-ALD.