Measuring stigma among health care and social service providers: The HIV/AIDS Provider Stigma Inventory

AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011 Nov;25(11):673-82. doi: 10.1089/apc.2011.0008. Epub 2011 Oct 3.


Initial validation of the HIV/AIDS Provider Stigma Inventory (HAPSI), piloted on a sample of 174 nursing students, supported the psychometric qualities of a suite of measures capturing tendencies to stigmatize and discriminate against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Derived from social psychology and mindfulness theories, separate scales addressing awareness, acceptance, and action were designed to include notions of labeling, stereotyping, outgrouping, and discriminating. These were enhanced to capture differences associated with personal characteristics of PLHA that trigger secondary stigma (e.g., sexual orientation, injection drug use, multiple sex partners) and fears regarding instrumental and symbolic stigma. Reliabilities were strong (coefficients α for 16 of 19 resulting measures ranged from 0.80 to 0.98) and confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit for two multidimensional (Awareness and Acceptance) and one unidimensional (Action) measure. Evidence of convergent construct validity supported accuracy of primary constructs. Implications for training and professional socialization in health care are discussed.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / psychology*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Male
  • Prejudice*
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Social Stigma
  • Stereotyping*
  • Students, Nursing / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States