Nuclear receptor (NR) coregulators include coactivators, contributing to holoreceptor transcriptional activity, and corepressors, mediating NR target gene silencing in the absence of hormone. We identified an atypical NR coregulator, TNFα-induced protein 3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1), from a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α screen of a human keratinocyte cDNA library. TNIP1's complex nomenclature parallels its additional function as an NF-κB inhibitor. Here we show TNIP1 is an atypical NR corepressor using two-hybrid systems, biochemical studies, and receptor activity assays. The requirements for TNIP1-PPAR interaction are characteristic for coactivators; however, TNIP1 partially decreases PPAR activity. TNIP1 has separable transcriptional activation and repression domains suggesting a modular nature to its overall effect. It may provide a means of lowering receptor activity in the presence of ligand without total loss of receptor function. TNIP1's multiple roles and expression in several cell types suggest its regulatory effect depends on its expression level and the expression of other regulators in NR and/or NF-κB signaling pathways. As a NR coregulator, TNIP1 targeting agonist-bound PPAR and reducing transcriptional activity offers control of receptor signaling not available from typical corepressors and may contribute to combinatorial regulation of transcription.
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