High-speed multineuron calcium imaging using Nipkow-type confocal microscopy

Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2011 Oct;Chapter 2:Unit 2.14. doi: 10.1002/0471142301.ns0214s57.


Conventional confocal and two-photon microscopy scan the field of view sequentially with single-point laser illumination. This raster-scanning method constrains video speeds to tens of frames per second, which are too slow to capture the temporal patterns of fast electrical events initiated by neurons. Nipkow-type spinning-disk confocal microscopy resolves this problem by the use of multiple laser beams. We describe experimental procedures for functional multineuron calcium imaging (fMCI) based on Nipkow-disk confocal microscopy, which enables us to monitor the activities of hundreds of neurons en masse at a cellular resolution at up to 2000 fps.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Microscopy, Confocal / methods*
  • Neurons / metabolism*


  • Calcium