The copper chelator cuprizone (bis-cyclohexanone oxaldihydrazone) was established as a neurotoxin in rodents in 1966 by Carlton. During the following years the usefulness of cuprizone feeding in mice to induce oligodendrocyte death with secondary demyelination of the superior cerebellar peduncles was described by Blakemore. In 1998 the cuprizone model experienced a renaissance as the group of Matsushima described the effects of cuprizone on the white matter of the cerebrum and focussed on demyelination in the corpus callosum, where the extent of demyelination could be scored more easily and consistently. Since then the toxic cuprizone model has been widely used to study experimental de- and remyelination in the corpus callosum. Recently, we and others have extended these studies and have shown several new aspects characteristic for this model. Many lessons can be learned from these recent findings that have implications for the basic understanding of remyelination and the design of remyelinating and neuroprotective strategies in demyelinating diseases of the CNS. Although the model is often mentioned in the context of multiple sclerosis, it must always be kept in mind that this model has a fundamentally different induction of demyelination. We highlight the important findings delineated from this model and critically discuss both the advantages and the shortcomings of cuprizone induced demyelination.