Mir-17-92 encodes 6 miRNAs inside a single polycistronic transcript, the proper expression of which is critical for early B-cell development and lymphocyte homeostasis. However, during the T-cell antigen response, the physiologic function of endogenous miR-17-92 and the roles of the individual miRNAs remain elusive. In the present study, we functionally dissected the miR-17-92 cluster and revealed that miR-17 and miR-19b are the key players controlling Th1 responses through multiple coordinated biologic processes. These include: promoting proliferation, protecting cells from activation-induced cell death, supporting IFN-γ production, and suppressing inducible regulatory T-cell differentiation. Mechanistically, we identified Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog) as the functionally important target of miR-19b, whereas the function of miR-17 is mediated by TGFβRII and the novel target CREB1. Because of its vigorous control over the Th1 cell-inducible regulatory T cell balance, the loss of miR-17-92 in CD4 T cells results in tumor evasion. Our results suggest that miR-19b and miR-17 could be harnessed to enhance the efficacy of T cell-based tumor therapy.