Reclamation of highly calcareous saline sodic soil using Atriplex halimus and by-product gypsum

Int J Phytoremediation. 2011 Oct;13(9):873-83. doi: 10.1080/15226514.2011.573821.


The removal of sodium salts from saline soils by salt tolerant crops, as alternative for costly chemical amendments, has emerged as an efficient low cost technology. Lysimeter experiments were carried out on a highly saline sodic soil (ECe = 65.3 dS m(-1), ESP = 27.4, CEC = 47.9 cmole+ kg(-1), and pH = 7.7) and irrigated with canal water (EC = 2.2 dSm(-1), SAR = 4.8) to investigate reclamation efficiency under four different treatments: control (no crop and no gypsum application) (C), gypsum application equivalent to 100% gypsum requirement (G100), planting sea orach (Atriplex halimus) as phytoremediation crop (Cr), planting sea orach with gypsum application equivalent to 50% gypsum requirement (CrG50). Soil salinity (ECe) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) were significantly reduced compared to the control. Average ESP and ECe (dS m(-1)) in the top layer were 9.1, 5.8 (control), 4.8, 3.7 (Cr), 3.3, 3.9 (CrG50), and 3.8, 3.1 (G100), respectively. Atriplex halimus can be recommended as phytoremediation crop to reclaim highly saline sodic clay loam soils.

MeSH terms

  • Atriplex / metabolism*
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Calcium Sulfate / chemistry*
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Conservation of Natural Resources / methods*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Ion Exchange
  • Jordan
  • Salinity
  • Sodium / analysis
  • Sodium / metabolism*
  • Soil / analysis
  • Soil / chemistry*
  • Water / analysis


  • Soil
  • Water
  • Sodium
  • Calcium Sulfate