Radiofrequency energy loop primes cardiac, neuronal, and skeletal muscle differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells: a new tool for improving tissue regeneration

Cell Transplant. 2012;21(6):1225-33. doi: 10.3727/096368911X600966. Epub 2011 Sep 22.


Radiofrequency (RF) waves from Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) technologies have become ubiquitous, with Internet access spreading into homes, and public areas. The human body harbors multipotent stem cells with various grading of potentiality. Whether stem cells may be affected by Wi-Fi RF energy remains unknown. We exposed mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to a Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), an innovative device delivering Wi-Fi RF of 2.4 GHz with its conveyer electrodes immersed into the culture medium. Cell responses were investigated by real-time PCR, Western blot, and confocal microscopy. Single RF burst duration, radiated power, electric and magnetic fields, specific absorption rate, and current density in culture medium were monitored. REAC stimulation primed transcription of genes involved in cardiac (GATA4, Nkx-2.5, and prodynorphin), skeletal muscle (myoD) and neuronal (neurogenin1) commitment, while downregulating the self renewal/pluripotency-associated genes Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog. REAC exposure enhanced the expression of cardiac, skeletal, and neuronal lineage-restricted marker proteins. The number of spontaneously beating ES-derived myocardial cells was also increased. In conclusion, REAC stimulation provided a "physical milieu" optimizing stem cell expression of pluripotentiality and the attainment of three major target lineages for regenerative medicine, without using chemical agonists or vector-mediated gene delivery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Embryonic Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Embryonic Stem Cells / transplantation
  • Enkephalins / metabolism
  • GATA4 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • Homeobox Protein Nkx-2.5
  • Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • MyoD Protein / metabolism
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Nanog Homeobox Protein
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism
  • Protein Precursors / metabolism
  • Radio Waves*
  • Regeneration / physiology*
  • SOXB1 Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Enkephalins
  • GATA4 Transcription Factor
  • Gata4 protein, mouse
  • Homeobox Protein Nkx-2.5
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • MyoD Protein
  • Nanog Homeobox Protein
  • Nanog protein, mouse
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Nkx2-5 protein, mouse
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-3
  • Protein Precursors
  • SOXB1 Transcription Factors
  • Transcription Factors
  • Neurog1 protein, mouse
  • preproenkephalin