Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful technique for mapping the spatial distributions of a wide range of chemical compounds simultaneously from a tissue section. Co-localization of the distribution of individual molecular species, including particular lipids and proteins, and correlation with the morphological features of a single tissue section are highly desirable for comprehensive tissue analysis and disease diagnosis. We now report on the use, in turn, of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), and then optical microscopy to image lipid and protein distributions in a single tissue section. This is possible through the use of histologically compatible DESI solvent systems, which allow for sequential analyses of the same section by DESI then MALDI. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed on the same section after removal of the MALDI matrix. This workflow allowed chemical information to be unambiguously matched to histological features in mouse brain tissue sections. The lipid sulfatide (24:1), detected at m/z 888.8 by DESI imaging, was colocalized with the protein MBP isoform 8, detected at m/z 14117 by MALDI imaging, in regions corresponding to the corpus callosum substructure of the mouse brain, as confirmed in the H&E images. Correlation of lipid and protein distributions with histopathological features was also achieved for human brain cancer samples. Higher tumor cell density was observed in regions demonstrating higher relative abundances of oleic acid, detected by DESI imaging at m/z 281.4, and the protein calcyclin, detected by MALDI at m/z 10085, for a human glioma sample. Since correlation between molecular signatures and disease state can be achieved, we expect that this methodology will significantly enhance the value of MS imaging in molecular pathology for diagnosis.