Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2011 Dec;22(12):1681-90; quiz 1691.
doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2011.08.018. Epub 2011 Oct 5.

Review of Venous Anatomy for Venographic Interpretation in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency

Affiliations
Review

Review of Venous Anatomy for Venographic Interpretation in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency

John D Werner et al. J Vasc Interv Radiol. .

Abstract

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) represents a recently described condition that may potentially contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis. The evaluation of a prospective patient for CCSVI often involves an invasive evaluation with venography of the internal jugular and azygos veins. The purpose of this article is to review the normal anatomy of the internal jugular, vertebral, and azygos veins, as an understanding of these veins is necessary for appropriate interpretation of the venograms obtained to evaluate patients for CCSVI.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 7 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback