Review of venous anatomy for venographic interpretation in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011 Dec;22(12):1681-90; quiz 1691. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2011.08.018. Epub 2011 Oct 5.


Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) represents a recently described condition that may potentially contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis. The evaluation of a prospective patient for CCSVI often involves an invasive evaluation with venography of the internal jugular and azygos veins. The purpose of this article is to review the normal anatomy of the internal jugular, vertebral, and azygos veins, as an understanding of these veins is necessary for appropriate interpretation of the venograms obtained to evaluate patients for CCSVI.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Azygos Vein / diagnostic imaging*
  • Azygos Vein / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Jugular Veins / pathology*
  • Models, Anatomic*
  • Phlebography / methods*
  • Radiography, Interventional / methods*
  • Venous Insufficiency / pathology*