The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Several G-protein-coupled receptor agonists are being studied for their efficacy as antidiabetes agents. JNJ-38431055 is a novel, potent, and orally available selective agonist of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic (GPR119) receptor. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single oral doses of JNJ-38431055 (2.5-800 mg) in healthy male volunteers. The systemic exposure of JNJ-38431055 in plasma increased in proportion to the dose and was not influenced by coadministration of food. The terminal elimination half-life was ~13 h when administered as an oral suspension formulation. JNJ-38431055 was well tolerated and was not associated with hypoglycemia. As compared with placebo, single-dose oral JNJ-38431055 increased postmeal plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations but did not significantly decrease glucose excursion or increase insulin secretion. However, in a graded glucose infusion study, JNJ-38431055 was shown to induce a higher insulin secretion rate (ISR) relative to placebo at elevated plasma glucose levels. These studies provide evidence for the potential efficacy of JNJ-38431055 as an antidiabetes agent in humans.