To understand and eventually predict the effects of changing redox conditions and oxidant levels on the physiology of an organism, it is essential to gain knowledge about its redoxome: the proteins whose activities are controlled by the oxidation status of their cysteine thiols. Here, we applied the quantitative redox proteomic method OxICAT to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determined the in vivo thiol oxidation status of almost 300 different yeast proteins distributed among various cellular compartments. We found that a substantial number of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins are partially oxidized during exponential growth. Our results suggest that prevailing redox conditions constantly control central cellular pathways by fine-tuning oxidation status and hence activity of these proteins. Treatment with sublethal H(2)O(2) concentrations caused a subset of 41 proteins to undergo substantial thiol modifications, thereby affecting a variety of different cellular pathways, many of which are directly or indirectly involved in increasing oxidative stress resistance. Classification of the identified protein thiols according to their steady-state oxidation levels and sensitivity to peroxide treatment revealed that redox sensitivity of protein thiols does not predict peroxide sensitivity. Our studies provide experimental evidence that the ability of protein thiols to react to changing peroxide levels is likely governed by both thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, making predicting thiol modifications challenging and de novo identification of peroxide sensitive protein thiols indispensable.