Acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy of Koreans

Ophthalmology. 2012 Feb;119(2):390-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.07.048. Epub 2011 Oct 5.


Purpose: To investigate the prevalence and clinical features of acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and compare the pathogenic features of acquired and congenital epiblepharon.

Design: Retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series, cross-sectional study.

Participants: A total of 494 Korean patients with TAO and 845 Korean patients with congenital lower eyelid epiblepharon.

Methods: The medical records were reviewed, and the presence, location, and extent of epiblepharon were identified. Clinical features of TAO (lower eyelid retraction, exophthalmos, and elevation limitation) were compared between patients with TAO with and without epiblepharon. Acquired epiblepharon was classified into 3 types according to the location and extent. The prevalence of epiblepharon types was determined and evaluated for associations with TAO clinical features. Comparisons were made between the prevalence of epiblepharon types in acquired and congenital epiblepharon.

Main outcome measures: Prevalence, location, and extent of epiblepharon; association with clinical features of TAO; and difference from congenital epiblepharon.

Results: An acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon was found in 42 (8.5%) of 494 patients with TAO. The mean age of patients with TAO with epiblepharon (34.2±13.5 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with TAO without epiblepharon (46.5±14.1 years) (P = 0.000). Lower eyelid retraction (0.78±1.11 mm) was more severe in patients with TAO with epiblepharon than in patients without epiblepharon (0.30±0.73 mm) (P = 0.000). Lower eyelid retraction was more severe in diffuse-type acquired epiblepharon than in central-type epiblepharon (P = 0.012). Elevation limitation was more severe in central-type acquired epiblepharon than in medial-type epiblepharon (P = 0.001). The occurrence of central-type epiblepharon was higher in TAO-associated acquired epiblepharon (20 eyelids, 30.8%) than in congenital epiblepharon (27 eyelids, 1.9%, P = 0.000).

Conclusions: Acquired lower eyelid epiblepharon is one of the clinical features of patients with TAO. The association between lower eyelid retraction and acquired epiblepharon may lead to a better understanding of the cause of acquired epiblepharon in patients with TAO.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asians / ethnology
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Exophthalmos / diagnosis
  • Eye Abnormalities / classification
  • Eye Abnormalities / diagnosis*
  • Eye Abnormalities / ethnology
  • Eyelids / abnormalities*
  • Eyelids / pathology
  • Female
  • Graves Ophthalmopathy / diagnosis*
  • Graves Ophthalmopathy / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oculomotor Muscles / abnormalities*
  • Oculomotor Muscles / pathology
  • Prevalence
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Skin Abnormalities / diagnosis*
  • Skin Abnormalities / ethnology