Tissue homeostasis over the life of an organism relies on both self-renewal and multipotent differentiation of stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in a hypoxic bone marrow environment, and their metabolic status is distinct from that of their differentiated progeny. HSCs generate energy mainly via anaerobic metabolism by maintaining a high rate of glycolysis. This metabolic balance promotes HSC maintenance by limiting the production of reactive oxygen species, but leaves HSCs susceptible to changes in redox status. In this review, we discuss the importance of oxygen homeostasis and energy metabolism for maintenance of HSC function and long-term self-renewal.
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