Polyneuropathy is a common presenting component of POEMS syndrome whose symptoms are attributed to an overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We report two female patients with POEMS syndrome presenting as a severe predominantly axonal neuropathy. A nerve biopsy was performed for these patients; pathological data confirmed unusual numerous acute axonal lesions associated with other classical signs of POEMS syndrome. POEMS syndrome is usually associated with demyelinating neuropathy (and secondary axonal loss); however, prominent axonal neuropathy (with acute axonal lesions on nerve biopsy) can also be observed in this disease. These observations illustrate the heterogeneity of peripheral nervous system involvement in POEMS syndrome.
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