Background: There has been a considerable change in the profile of infective endocarditis (IE) worldwide. However, prospective studies of IE from developing countries are rare.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors, clinical presentation, echocardiography, microbiology, in-hospital course, and outcomes of patients with definite IE.
Methods: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive cases of definite IE as per the modified Duke criteria.
Results: Between 2004 and 2006, a total of 104 cases of definite IE were identified. The mean age was 23.5 years (interquartile range, 9-38 years), with a male preponderance (2.5:1). Congenital heart disease accounted for 39.4% cases of IE, followed by native valve disease (29.8%), prosthetic valve disease (20%), and normal valves (7.7%). Echocardiography was diagnostic in 96.7% of the patients. Positive cultures were obtained in only 41% of the cases, with staphylococci and streptococci being the most common organisms. Seventy-three percent of the cases had at least 1 major complication. Only 15% of the cases underwent surgery for IE. The in-hospital mortality was 26%. On multivariate analysis, an underlying heart disease other than native valve disease and septic shock were independent predictors of mortality.
Conclusion: The mean age of IE in India is significantly lower than that in the West. Unlike previous reports, congenital heart disease is the major predisposing factor. Culture positivity rates and surgery for IE are unacceptably low. In conclusion, IE in India is associated with a very high morbidity and mortality.
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