A considerable percentage of rectal cancers are resistant to standard preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Because patients with a priori-resistant tumors do not benefit from multimodal treatment, understanding and overcoming this resistance remains of utmost clinical importance. We recently reported overexpression of the Wnt transcription factor TCF4, also known as TCF7L2, in rectal cancers that were resistant to 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. Because Wnt signaling has not been associated with treatment response, we aimed to investigate whether TCF4 mediates chemoradioresistance. RNA interference-mediated silencing of TCF4 was employed in three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, and sensitivity to (chemo-) radiotherapy was assessed using a standard colony formation assay. Silencing of TCF4 caused a significant sensitization of CRC cells to clinically relevant doses of X-rays. This effect was restricted to tumor cells with high T cell factor (TCF) reporter activity, presumably in a β-catenin-independent manner. Radiosensitization was the consequence of (i) a transcriptional deregulation of Wnt/TCF4 target genes, (ii) a silencing-induced G(2)/M phase arrest, (iii) an impaired ability to adequately halt cell cycle progression after radiation and (iv) a compromised DNA double strand break repair as assessed by γH2AX staining. Taken together, our results indicate a novel mechanism through which the Wnt transcription factor TCF4 mediates chemoradioresistance. Moreover, they suggest that TCF4 is a promising molecular target to sensitize resistant tumor cells to (chemo-) radiotherapy.