OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxic effects of deracoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. DESIGN-Clinical trial. Animals-26 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring, histologically confirmed, measurableTCC of the urinary bladder. PROCEDURES-Dogs were treated PO with deracoxib at a dosage of 3 mg/kg/d (1.36 mg/lb/d) as a single-agent treatment for TCC. Tumor response was assessed via radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic mapping of urinary bladder masses. Toxic effects of deracoxib administration in dogs were assessed through clinical observations and hematologic and biochemical analyses. RESULTS-Of 24 dogs for which tumor response was assessed, 4 (17%) had partial remission, 17 (71%) had stable disease, and 3 (13%) had progressive disease; initial response could not be assessed in 2 of 26 dogs. The median survival time was 323 days. Median time to progressive disease was 133 days. Renal, hepatic, and gastrointestinal abnormalities attributed to deracoxib administration were noted in 4% (1/26), 4% (1/26), and 19% (5/26) of dogs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results indicated that deracoxib was generally well tolerated by dogs and had antitumor activity against TCC.