Two series of urea and thiourea derivatives (1a-11a, 1b-11b) have been synthesized; all the 22 compounds were reported for the first time. Their anti-proliferative activities against the melanoma cell line B16-F10 were evaluated. Among the compounds tested, compound 6b exhibited the most potent activity in melanoma cells growth inhibition (IC(50) = 0.33 μM). The bioassay tests showed that anti-proliferative activities of these novel compounds were possibly caused by inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation level. Therefore, compound 6b can be a potential anti-melanoma agent and an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation deserving further research.