This study evaluated interleukin (IL)-11 as an independent prognostic marker of mortality following intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Plasma IL-11 levels in patients with ICH were significantly higher than in healthy controls. Multivariate analysis indicated that plasma IL-11 level was an independent predictor for mortality within 1 week of ICH onset and was positively associated with haematoma volume. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified that a baseline plasma IL-11 level > 20.9 pg/ml predicted mortality within 1 week of ICH onset with 81.2% sensitivity and 74.1% specificity. The area under the curve for IL-11 level was significantly smaller than that for the Glasgow Coma Scale score, but similar to that for haematoma volume. IL-11 did not, however, significantly improve the predictive value of the Glasgow Coma Scale or haematoma volume. Thus, IL-11 may be considered as a new independent prognostic marker of mortality and an additional valuable tool for risk stratification and decision-making in the acute phase of ICH.