Hypoglycemic effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum flower buds) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice and identification of the active ingredients

J Nat Med. 2012 Apr;66(2):394-9. doi: 10.1007/s11418-011-0593-z. Epub 2011 Oct 11.


Clove (Syzygium aromaticum flower buds) EtOH extract significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In-vitro evaluation showed the extract had human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligand-binding activity in a GAL4-PPAR-γ chimera assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract resulted in the isolation of eight compounds, of which dehydrodieugenol (2) and dehydrodieugenol B (3) had potent PPAR-γ ligand-binding activities, whereas oleanolic acid (4), a major constituent in the EtOH extract, had moderate activity. Furthermore, 2 and 3 were shown to stimulate 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through PPAR-γ activation. These results indicate that clove has potential as a functional food ingredient for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and that 2-4 mainly contribute to its hypoglycemic effects via PPAR-γ activation.

MeSH terms

  • 3T3-L1 Cells
  • Adipocytes / cytology
  • Adipocytes / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Diabetes Mellitus / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / chemistry*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Lignans / chemistry
  • Mice
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacokinetics
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Syzygium / chemistry*
  • Triterpenes / chemistry


  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Lignans
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
  • Plant Extracts
  • Triterpenes