Elevated blood pressure aggravates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury

J Neurotrauma. 2011 Dec;28(12):2523-34. doi: 10.1089/neu.2010.1680. Epub 2011 Oct 11.


Elevated blood pressure (BP) is commonly seen in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and is independently associated with poor functional outcomes. Little is known about how elevated BP influences ICH-related brain injury. In the present study, we investigated the physiological and brain histological changes, as well as functional recovery following ICH in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension (RVHT) was achieved by applying a silver clip onto the left renal artery of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. ICH was induced by an intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase IV about 5-6 weeks after left renal artery clipping or the sham operation. Following induction of ICH, both the normotensive and RVHT rats demonstrated an ultra-acute elevation in BP. Elevated BP increased hematoma volume, brain swelling, and apoptosis in the perihematomal areas. Brain degeneration, including local atrophy and lateral ventricle enlargement, was greater in the RVHT rats. In addition, many proliferating cells were seen over the ipsilateral striatum in the RVHT rats after ICH. The modified limb placing tests were done weekly for 3 weeks. In line with the histological damage, elevated BP worsened neurological deficits. These results suggest that ICH in the hypertensive rats mimics the clinical scenario of hypertensive ICH and may provide a platform to study the mechanisms of ICH-induced brain injury and potential therapies for ICH.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Injuries / etiology
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / complications
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / physiopathology*
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley