Skeletal complications represent major clinical problems in multiple myeloma (MM). MM cells are known to induce differentiation of osteoclasts and inhibit osteoblasts. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are key molecules for osteoclastogenesis. Although OPG interacts with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), the contribution of TRAIL to skeletal-related events (SRE) remains a matter of debate. In the present study, we examined the role of TRAIL in MM bone lesions. Myeloma cells were purified from 56 MM patients by CD138-immunomagnetic beads. TRAIL, DKK-1 and MIP1α RNA expression in purified MM cells was analyzed by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry of TRAIL was performed on paraffin-embedded plasmacytoma tissue sections. The concentration of TRAIL in the serum and bone marrow plasma from MM patients was analyzed by ELISA. TRAIL expression was significantly higher in MM cells than in plasma cells from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). TRAIL staining was detected in the cytoplasm of myeloma cells. TRAIL expression in MM cells correlated with bone marrow plasma TRAIL concentration. TRAIL expression had a positive correlation with osteolytic markers, such as serum calcium and urinary deoxypyridinoline. These results suggest that TRAIL, produced from myeloma cells, may play an important role in bone resorption of MM patients. Inhibition of this pathway may lead to development of a new therapeutic approach preventing bone resorption in MM.