Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease, is increasing in prevalence around the world. Intensive research is ongoing to understand the mechanisms involved in the development of AD and offer new treatment options for patients suffering from AD. In this review, we highlight the importance of allergic Th2 responses in the development of the disease and summarize relevant literature, including genetic studies, studies of human skin and mechanistic studies on keratinocytes and mouse models of AD. We discuss the importance of the skin barrier and review recent findings on the pro-Th2 cytokines TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33, notably their ability to polarize dendritic cells and promote Th2 responses. After a brief update on the contribution of different T-cell subsets to AD, we focus on Th2 cells and the respective contributions of each of the Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5, IL-31, and IL-10) to AD. We conclude with a brief discussion of the current gaps in our knowledge and technical limitations.