An Update on Vitamin D and Human Immunity

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Mar;76(3):315-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04261.x.

Abstract

In the last 5 years, there has been a remarkable change in our understanding of the health benefits of vitamin D. The classical actions of vitamin D as a determinant of mineral metabolism and rachitic bone disease have been expanded to include a broader role in skeletal homoeostasis and prevalent bone disorders such as osteoporosis. However, it is the nonskeletal function of vitamin D that has attracted most attention. Although pluripotent responses to vitamin D have been recognized for many years, our new perspective on nonclassical vitamin D function stems from two more recent concepts. The first is that impaired, vitamin D status is common to many populations across the globe. This has prompted studies to explore the health impact of suboptimal circulating levels of vitamin D, with association studies linking vitamin D 'insufficiency' to several chronic health problems including autoimmune and cardiovascular disease, hypertension and common cancers. In support of a broader role for vitamin D in human health, studies in vitro and using animal models have highlighted immunomodulatory and anticancer effects of vitamin D that appear to depend on localized activation of vitamin D. The conclusion from these reports is that many nonclassical actions of vitamin D are independent of conventional vitamin D endocrinology and are therefore more sensitive to variations in vitamin D status. The current review summarizes these developments, with specific reference to the newly identified effects of vitamin D on the immune system, but also highlights the challenges in translating these observations to clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity / drug effects*
  • Adaptive Immunity / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects*
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Models, Immunological
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / immunology
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D / immunology
  • Vitamin D / metabolism

Substances

  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Vitamin D