Deciphering the hybridisation history leading to the Lager lineage based on the mosaic genomes of Saccharomyces bayanus strains NBRC1948 and CBS380

PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25821. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025821. Epub 2011 Oct 5.


Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380(T) and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380(T) harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing of different markers, including genes involved in maltotriose utilization or genes detected by array-CGH mapping. Sequence comparisons with public Saccharomyces spp. nucleotide sequences revealed that the CBS380(T) and NBRC1948 genomes are composed of: a predominant non-cerevisiae genetic background belonging to S. uvarum, a second unidentified species provisionally named S. lagerae, and several introgressed S. cerevisiae fragments. The largest cerevisiae-introgressed DNA common to both genomes totals 70kb in length and is distributed in three contigs, cA, cB and cC. These vary in terms of length and presence of MAL31 or MTY1 (maltotriose-transporter gene). In NBRC1948, two additional cerevisiae-contigs, cD and cE, totaling 12kb in length, as well as several smaller cerevisiae fragments were identified. All of these contigs were partially detected in the genomes of S. pastorianus lager strains CBS1503 (S. monacensis) and CBS1513 (S. carlsbergensis) explaining the noticeable common ability of S. bayanus and S. pastorianus to metabolize maltotriose. NBRC1948 was shown to be inter-fertile with S. uvarum CBS7001. The cross involving these two strains produced F1 segregants resembling the strains CBS380(T) or NRRLY-1551. This demonstrates that these S. bayanus strains were the offspring of a cross between S. uvarum and a strain similar to NBRC1948. Phylogenies established with selected cerevisiae and non-cerevisiae genes allowed us to decipher the complex hybridisation events linking S. lagerae/S. uvarum/S. cerevisiae with their hybrid species, S. bayanus/pastorianus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosomes, Fungal / genetics
  • Comparative Genomic Hybridization
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Fermentation / genetics
  • Fertility / genetics
  • Genes, Fungal / genetics
  • Genetic Loci / genetics
  • Genome, Fungal / genetics*
  • Hybridization, Genetic / genetics*
  • Melibiose / metabolism
  • Phylogeny*
  • Saccharomyces / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces / physiology
  • Telomere / genetics
  • Trisaccharides / metabolism


  • Trisaccharides
  • maltotriose
  • Melibiose