Evaluation of the Relationship between Passive Smoking and Oral Pigmentation in Children

J Dent (Tehran). 2010 Summer;7(3):119-23. Epub 2010 Sep 30.


Introduction: Melanin pigmentation in the oral mucosa occurs as a result of several reasons one of which is smoking. Cigarette smoke induces numerous side effects in the people who do not smoke, but are in the same environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of parental smoking on pigmentation of their children's oral mucosa.

Materials and methods: This study was carried out as a historical cohort. Participants were 400 healthy children, 10 to 11 years old who did not use any drugs. The passive smoker group included 200 children who at least one member in their family was a smoker. The control group included 200 children who did not have a smoker in their family. Furthermore, two groups were matched in the point of view of skin color. The children in the two groups were examined and oral pigmentation was recorded. Finally, the results were analyzed by the chi- square test.

Results: Pigmentation was seen in 150 children (75%) in the experimental group and 122 children (61%) in the control group (P<0.005). The relative risk of oral pigmentation for children who were exposed to passive smoking was 1.23.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, passive smoking can induce gingival pigmentation in children.

Keywords: Oral Pigmentation; Passive Smoking; Physiologic Pigmentation; Skin Color.