The epidemiology of uric acid and fructose

Semin Nephrol. 2011 Sep;31(5):410-9. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2011.08.004.


During the past few decades, the mean serum uric acid levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia in the general population appear to have increased. Correspondingly, the prevalence and incidence of gout have doubled. Potential reasons behind these trends include the increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, Western lifestyle factors, increased prevalence of medical conditions (eg, renal conditions, hypertension, and cardiovascular disorders), and use of medications that increase uric acid levels (eg, diuretics and low-dose aspirin). The substantial increase in sugar-sweetened soft drinks and associated fructose consumption also has coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia and gout. Recently, several large-scale epidemiologic studies have clarified a number of these long-suspected risk factors in relation with hyperuricemia and gout. Furthermore, recent studies have illuminated the substantial comorbidities of hyperuricemia and gout, particularly metabolic-cardiovascular-renal conditions. Although many prospective studies have suggested an independent association between serum uric acid levels and the future risk of cardiovascular-metabolic morbidities and mortality, only a limited number of randomized clinical trials and observational studies recently have shown that the use of allopurinol can be beneficial against these outcomes. Because these data are scarce and the effects of allopurinol might not be limited to decreasing serum uric acid levels, the potential causal role of uric acid on these outcomes remains to be clarified with further studies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Beverages
  • Diabetes Mellitus / etiology
  • Female
  • Fructose / adverse effects*
  • Gout / epidemiology*
  • Gout / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Hyperuricemia / complications
  • Hyperuricemia / epidemiology*
  • Hyperuricemia / etiology*
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Uric Acid / blood*
  • Young Adult


  • Uric Acid
  • Fructose