The gut hormones PYY 3-36 and GLP-1 7-36 amide reduce food intake and modulate brain activity in appetite centers in humans

Cell Metab. 2011 Nov 2;14(5):700-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.09.010. Epub 2011 Oct 13.


Obesity is a major public health issue worldwide. Understanding how the brain controls appetite offers promising inroads toward new therapies for obesity. Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are coreleased postprandially and reduce appetite and inhibit food intake when administered to humans. However, the effects of GLP-1 and the ways in which PYY and GLP-1 act together to modulate brain activity in humans are unknown. Here, we have used functional MRI to determine these effects in healthy, normal-weight human subjects and compared them to those seen physiologically following a meal. We provide a demonstration that the combined administration of PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36 amide) to fasted human subjects leads to similar reductions in subsequent energy intake and brain activity, as observed physiologically following feeding.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Appetite / physiology
  • Body Weight
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Eating / drug effects*
  • Eating / physiology
  • Energy Intake / drug effects*
  • Energy Intake / physiology
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Immunoassay
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Peptide Fragments / administration & dosage*
  • Peptide YY / administration & dosage*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Single-Blind Method


  • Peptide Fragments
  • Peptide YY
  • glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36)amide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1