CpG or IFN-α are more potent adjuvants than GM-CSF to promote anti-tumor immunity following idiotype vaccine in multiple myeloma

Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012 Apr;61(4):561-71. doi: 10.1007/s00262-011-1123-2. Epub 2011 Oct 15.


Idiotype (Id) protein in combination with GM-CSF has been used as vaccines for immunotherapy of patients with myeloma and B-cell tumors and the results have been disappointing. To search for better immune adjuvants to improve the efficacy of Id-based immunotherapy in myeloma, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of vaccination of Id protein in combination with CpG or IFN-α, or GM-CSF as a control, in the 5TGM1 myeloma mouse model. Our results showed that Id vaccine combined with CpG or IFN-α, but not GM-CSF, not only efficiently protected mice from developing myeloma but also eradicated established myeloma. The therapeutic responses were associated with an induction of strong humoral immune responses including anti-Id antibodies, and cellular immune responses including Id- and myeloma-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), CD4+ type-1 T-helper (Th1) cells and memory T cells in mice receiving Id vaccine combined with CpG or IFN-α. Furthermore, Id vaccine combined with CpG or IFN-α induced Id- and tumor-specific memory immune responses that protected surviving mice from tumor rechallenge. Thus, our study clearly shows that CpG or IFN-α are better immune adjuvants than GM-CSF. This information will be important for improving the strategies of Id-based immunotherapy for patients with myeloma and other B-cell tumors.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / drug effects*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • B-Lymphocytes / pathology
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Idiotypes / administration & dosage
  • Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage
  • Mice
  • Multiple Myeloma / immunology
  • Multiple Myeloma / therapy*
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / administration & dosage
  • Vaccination


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • CpG ODN 1826
  • Immunoglobulin Idiotypes
  • Interferon-alpha
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor