Serum paraoxonase-3 concentration in HIV-infected patients. Evidence for a protective role against oxidation

J Lipid Res. 2012 Jan;53(1):168-74. doi: 10.1194/jlr.P018457. Epub 2011 Oct 14.


We investigated the influence of the HIV infection on serum paraoxonase-3 (PON3) concentration and assessed the relationships with lipoprotein-associated abnormalities, immunological response, and accelerated atherosclerosis. We studied 207 HIV-infected patients and 385 healthy volunteers. Serum PON3 was determined by in-house ELISA, and PON3 distribution in lipoproteins was investigated by fast-performance liquid chromatography (FPLC). Polymorphisms of the PON3 promoter were analyzed by the Iplex Gold MassArray(TM) method. PON3 concentrations were increased (about three times) in HIV-infected patients with respect to controls (P < 0.001) and were inversely correlated with oxidized LDL levels (P = 0.038). Long-term use of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy was associated with a decrease of PON3 concentrations. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, these relationships were still strong when the main confounding covariates were considered. PON3 was mainly found in HDL in HIV-infected patients, but a substantial amount of the protein was detected in LDL particles. This study reports for the first time an important increase in serum PON3 concentrations in HIV-infected patients that is associated with their oxidative status and their treatment with NNRTI. Long-term, prospective studies are needed to confirm the possible influence of this enzyme on the course of this disease and its possible utility as an analytical biomarker.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / blood*
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / genetics
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / enzymology*
  • Humans
  • Lipoproteins / blood
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidation-Reduction


  • Lipoproteins
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • oxidized low density lipoprotein
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase
  • PON3 protein, human