Intake of minerals, trace elements and vitamins in bone and raw food rations in adult dogs

Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106 Suppl 1:S53-6. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511002765.


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vitamin and mineral content of bone and raw food rations fed to adult dogs in Germany. Pet owners completed a standardised feeding questionnaire. The composition of 95 rations was calculated from mean data for foodstuffs using nutrition balancing software. Typical ration ingredients were meats, fish, offal, dairy products, eggs, oil, nuts, cod liver oil and natural and commercial supplements. The supply of nutrients was compared with the recommended allowance (RA). Of the rations that were used, 10 % supplied < 25 % of the RA of Ca. In these rations, Ca:P was below 0.6:1, and vitamin D was below RA. About half of the rations supplied less iodine than the minimum requirement. Many of the rations had low Zn and Cu supply, and 25 % of the rations supplied only 70 % of RA for vitamin A or less. A total of 60 % of the rations had one or more of the above-mentioned imbalance. The remaining 40 % of rations either had minor problems like Ca excess from bones or they were balanced.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed / analysis*
  • Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Animals
  • Bone and Bones / chemistry
  • Diet / veterinary*
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Male
  • Minerals / chemistry*
  • Nutritive Value
  • Trace Elements / chemistry*
  • Vitamins / chemistry*


  • Minerals
  • Trace Elements
  • Vitamins