Potato tubers are modified stems that have differentiated into storage organs. Factors such as day-length, nitrogen supply, and levels of the phytohormones cytokinin and gibberellic acid, are known to control tuberization. Morphological changes during tuber initiation are accompanied by the accumulation of a characteristic set of proteins, thought to be involved in N-storage (i.e. patatin) or defense against microbial or insect attack (i.e. proteinase inhibitor II). Additionally, deposition of large amounts of starch occurs during tuber formation, which is paralleled by an increase in sucrose synthase and other enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis (i.e. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthases, and branching enzyme). Potential controlling mechanisms for genes expressed during tuberization are discussed.