Essential oils from the fruit of two species of Evodia rutaecarpa from China (Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. var. officinalis (Dode) Huang and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.) have been obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to discern the differences and similarities between the volatile chemical compositions of these species. More than 21 components were identified in essential oils of the studied plants. In the oil of E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. var. officinalis (Dode) Huang, the main essential oil ingredients were β-myrcene (44.43%) and β-pinene (39.88%). β-pinene (72.82%), 1R-α-pinene (8.90%) and β-myrcene (1.99%) were the major compounds in the oil of E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. The chemical compounds of the essential oils showed that there are only six common compounds between the two species.