We report on the local structure of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires studied using a hard X-ray nanoprobe. X-ray fluorescence maps show uniform Zn and Co distributions along the wire within the length scale of the beam size. The X-ray fluorescence data allow the estimation of the Co content within the nanowire. Polarization dependent X-ray absorption near edge structure shows no structural disorder induced neither in the radial nor axial directions of the implanted nanowires after subsequent annealing. Co2+ ions occupy Zn sites into the wurtzite ZnO lattice. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data reveal high structural order in the host lattice without distortion in their interatomic distances, confirming the recovery of the radiation damaged ZnO structure through thermal annealing.