A social-ecological model of readiness for transition to adult-oriented care for adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions

Child Care Health Dev. 2011 Nov;37(6):883-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01282.x.


Background: Policy and research related to transition to adult care for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) has focused primarily on patient age, disease skills and knowledge.

Objective: In an effort to broaden conceptualization of transition and move beyond isolated patient variables, a new social-ecological model of AYA readiness for transition (SMART) was developed.

Methods: SMART development was informed by related theories, literature, expert opinion and pilot data collection using a questionnaire developed to assess provider report of SMART components with 100 consecutive patients in a childhood cancer survivorship clinic.

Results: The literature, expert opinion and pilot data collection support the relevance of SMART components and a social-ecological conceptualization of transition. Provider report revealed that many components, representing more than age, disease knowledge and skills, related to provider plans for transferring patients.

Conclusions: SMART consists of inter-related constructs of patients, parents and providers with emphasis on variables amenable to intervention. Results support SMART's broadened conceptualization of transition readiness and need for assessment of multiple stakeholders' perspectives of patient transition readiness. A companion measure of SMART, which will be able to be completed by patients, parents and providers, will be developed to target areas of intervention to facilitate optimal transition readiness. Similar research programmes to establish evidence-based transition measures and interventions are needed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Chronic Disease
  • Concept Formation
  • Disease Management
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Policy
  • Health Status Indicators
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Male
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Neoplasms / psychology*
  • Pediatrics / methods*
  • Social Environment*
  • Stress, Psychological
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Survivors*
  • Transition to Adult Care*
  • Young Adult