ICEberg: a web-based resource for integrative and conjugative elements found in Bacteria

Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Jan;40(Database issue):D621-6. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr846. Epub 2011 Oct 18.


ICEberg ( is an integrated database that provides comprehensive information about integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) found in bacteria. ICEs are conjugative self-transmissible elements that can integrate into and excise from a host chromosome. An ICE contains three typical modules, integration and excision, conjugation, and regulation modules, that collectively promote vertical inheritance and periodic lateral gene flow. Many ICEs carry likely virulence determinants, antibiotic-resistant factors and/or genes coding for other beneficial traits. ICEberg offers a unique, highly organized, readily explorable archive of both predicted and experimentally supported ICE-relevant data. It currently contains details of 428 ICEs found in representatives of 124 bacterial species, and a collection of >400 directly related references. A broad range of similarity search, sequence alignment, genome context browser, phylogenetic and other functional analysis tools are readily accessible via ICEberg. We propose that ICEberg will facilitate efficient, multi-disciplinary and innovative exploration of bacterial ICEs and be of particular interest to researchers in the broad fields of prokaryotic evolution, pathogenesis, biotechnology and metabolism. The ICEberg database will be maintained, updated and improved regularly to ensure its ongoing maximum utility to the research community.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / genetics*
  • Conjugation, Genetic*
  • Databases, Genetic*
  • Internet
  • Interspersed Repetitive Sequences*