We performed genetic and immunohistochemical studies in a sister and brother with autosomal recessive neonatal inflammatory skin and bowel lesions. The girl died suddenly at 12 years of age from parvovirus B19-associated myocarditis; her brother had mild cardiomyopathy. We identified a loss-of-function mutation in ADAM17, which encodes a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (also called tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]-converting enzyme, or TACE), as the probable cause of this syndrome. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from the brother at 17 years of age showed high levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 but impaired release of TNF-α. Despite repeated skin infections, this young man has led a relatively normal life. (Funded by Barts and the London Charity and the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme.).